Teardrop attack is a sort of Denial of Service (DoS) attack, invaded by bugs generated by the IP header. Due to the overabundance of bugs that keep sending such fragments, while your computer system is unable to organize them, it eventually crashes.
Teardrop Attack causes its victim’s operating system to enable a large volume of “fragmented data,” resulting in the victim’s OS to crash. The main reason for such operating systems to crash is due to the “buggy” nature of those data. As a result, the victim’s machine is unable to rearrange them with the bug present in the TCP/IP fragment.
These packets of “fragmented” data are constantly piling up inside the victim’s OS; eventually, the overabundance of it crashes the machine’s system of a victim.
This illustration has been taken from Juniper’s publication to show how this attack triggers
Consider this attack to be like this; it’s the task of the internet to break down any data into smaller pieces when a large volume is transferred with a given number. As soon as the data reaches the receiving end of a signal, all the fragments get lined up in their respective order, causing the whole message to reformulate in its original form.
The purpose of the fragment offset field is to remember the sequence of the packets of data by memorizing the crucial information. A victim’s machine crashes the instant when the fragment offset field is turned buggy by a professional hacker, while the machine becomes confused and unable to rearrange the sequence causing it to crash.
All those “buggy” fragments of data keep gathering inside a victim’s machine, similar to teardrops; hence, resulting in the machine to crash. But the latest devices of networking are able to pinpoint such discrepancies and automatically let go of those packets that have the potential to stir any problems like these.